Refractometry allows to identify the nature of gastric contents and thus allows to separate between gastric secretions and undigested food [1]. In case of delayed gastric emptying, the refractive index is higher [1]. Feasibility/Equipment: Refractometry requires training of personnel, but […]


I-BABP (intestinal bile acid-binding protein) is a protein found in enterocytes that is released into the bloodstream upon damage to the enterocyte membrane. I-BABP levels in the blood have been proposed as a biomarker for enterocyte damage and gastrointestinal dysfunction […]


FGF-19 is secreted from the intestinal epithelial cells in response to bile acids released to the intestinal lumen upon feeding. FGF-19 promotes glucose uptake in adipocytes and has a role in bile acid homeostasis and hepatic protein metabolism.  FGF-19 levels […]


Citrulline is an amino acid which forms a key intermediate in the urea cycle. It is also produced as a by-product of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from arginine and in the gastrointestinal tract from glutamine. Citrulline has been […]

Bile Acids

Description: Bile acids are produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; they are released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats. Abnormal levels of bile acids in the blood or urine can […]